Don’t Pay Your Lawyer For This

By: Alexandra K. Rigden, Esq.

Law is a business. So, this blog is actually against my financial interests because I am here to tell you what you should NOT pay your family law attorney to do:

  1. Referee day-to-day, ordinary parenting disputes: Fighting through lawyers over day-to-day, ordinary parenting disputes, can come with a high price tag, both emotionally and financially. When I say “day-to-day, ordinary parenting disputes”, I’m talking about, for example, mom feeding the kids non-organic instead of organic hot dogs; dad returning the children a few minutes late from parenting time; objections by one parent to other parent getting the child a haircut without prior consent—the list goes on and on. Parents will have to co-parent with each other long after the lawyers are gone. Sending the message during the litigation that day-to-day parenting decisions cannot be navigated without lawyers engenders acrimony and unnecessary fees. To the extent possible, parents should pick up the phone and try to figure it out.
  1. Act as your therapist: In the course of family law representation, I learn a lot about a client’s life. I may learn why their marriage broke up, why their kids are estranged from them, how their new relationship is going, how much they earn, and other personal—sometimes very personal—facts. Naturally, conversations transition from facts to feelings. As much as I do enjoy getting to know clients and understand the very human element to family law, I am a counselor at law, not a counselor at life. Moreover, in comparing hourly rates, most family lawyers are more expensive than therapists.
  1. Fight about ordinary personal property: I’m not talking about a Van Gogh painting or a Cartier watch…those items may well be worth the fight. I’m talking about tables, chairs, bed frames, mattresses, pots, pans…ordinary household items. Once these items were brought home they drastically depreciated in value. Your five-year-old mattress isn’t going to have much, or any, value on the open market. Paying lawyers to fight over ordinary personal property is not a wise use of your money.

4. Advise you about taxes and finances: I am not an accountant nor am I a financial advisor. Tax returns, tax issues, and finances are a daily part of a matrimonial practice. But, simply because a client’s finances are part of the equation, does not mean that a family lawyer is qualified to offer advice on them.

What is “full custody”??

By reading the title of this blog, you probably expected me to have an answer to that question. If I had a dime for every time I heard potential clients talk about “full custody”, I would be retired on an island and not writing this blog.

I often hear some variation of the following: I want full custody; I am afraid my spouse/significant other will fight for full custody; my friend got full custody; can I get full custody? But, to family lawyers, the term “full custody” does not mean anything specific.

In New Jersey, there are two main types of custody and “full” is not one of them: legal (sole or joint) and physical (sole or joint). Joint legal custody shared by two parents allows them to have decision-making power and input over a child’s health, education, and welfare. A legal custodian is entitled to health and educational information for the child. It is possible for a parent to have joint legal custody, but not be involved in the child’s life in a meaningful way. In fact, it is very rare in New Jersey for one parent to have sole legal custody, which means they have sole decision making power over the child’s health, education, and welfare to the exclusion of the other parent.

Physical custody, as opposed to legal custody, is the amount of time a child actually spends with a parent. “Joint” or “shared” custody means that the parents equally share the child 50/50. Sole physical custody can mean that the non-custodial parent either has “parenting time” with the child or no parenting time at all.

When I hear that a client wants “full custody”, my initial question is, do you really want sole legal and sole physical custody? Do you truly not want the other parent to have any contact with the child or any say in his/her upbringing? The vast majority of the time, the answer is, of course, no; that parent generally does want the other parent involved in the child’s life. Essentially, by “full custody”, that parent generally means he/she wants the child to live primarily with him/her and spend less physical time with the other parent.

The situations where a parent truly wants “full custody” (which can, realistically, only mean sole legal and sole physical custody) are few and far between. Even more rare is a Court actually imposing such restrictions.

Debt to Society and to Children

A child support obligation is subject to review by a court when there is a change in the obligor’s financial circumstances. One may be surprised to learn, however, that this is true even when the change in financial circumstances is self-created by an obligor committing a crime that results in a prison sentence. If an incarcerated child support obligor can barely afford a snack at the commissary, it is the child who will financially suffer. A prison sentence is not an automatic get-out-of-jail-free card to avoid paying child support. But, upon a Motion filed by an inmate, a court can suspend or ‘arrest’ a child support obligation pending the inmate-obligor’s release from prison.

In Halliwell v. Halliwell, 326 N.J. Super. 442, 741 (App.Div.1999), the Appellate Division held that although an inmate’s incarceration may be the result of choosing to commit a crime, he or she may still be entitled to a suspension of child support pending release from prison. The Court found that an inmate has no ability to rectify his or her financial situation and earn more money, unlike an obligor who is voluntarily unemployed or underemployed. The Halliwell Court viewed incarceration in common with a long-term disability that prevents an obligor from earning income rather than as a voluntary reduction in income that can be rectified. Procedurally, the Halliwell Court found that in cases where a child support obligor has been sentenced to a lengthy period of incarceration and has no assets, a Motion to modify their support obligation should be heard after their release. At that point, the Motion would be considered after the parties submitted updated financial information. A court could then enter an order retroactive to the filing date of the Motion to determine a current support order and arrearage payment, based on the obligor’s financial ability.

In another Appellate Division case of Kuron v. Hamilton, 331 N.J. Super. 561 (App. Div. 2000), the Court confirmed what was already evident, that an inmate’s request to suspend a child support obligation must be determined on a case-by-case basis. That determination includes not only whether to suspend an obligation, but also whether or to what extent arrears will accrue; the accrual of arrears during a prison sentence may be one of the biggest issues such cases. The accrual of arrears during a long-term sentence may result in the inmate being saddled with nearly insurmountable debt upon release. So, after repaying the debt to society, he or she may have substantial child support debt to repay as well.

The real financial victim in these cases is the child, who either does not receive child support during a parent’s prison stay, or may not receive it at all for the time period of the parent’s prison sentence.

Alexandra Ridgen, Esq.

Will the emancipation statute affect New Jersey child support?

Recently, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie signed a bill into law that is commonly referred to as the emancipation statute. This new statute may have a significant impact on when and how your child support order will terminate. Due to the effects it may have on your situation, it behooves you to understand the changes made by the new law so that you are prepared.

Currently, most child support orders terminate on a child’s 18th birthday. This is generally the case unless the order specifies otherwise. Under the new law, child support orders will be extended and will instead terminate on a child’s 19th birthday. It will be applicable to those orders that are issued before and after the new law takes effect on February 1, 2017.

The new law specifies that child support orders should terminate automatically when a child turns 19-years-old, except under certain circumstances. Support orders may be extended in situations when the child who is receiving support is placed outside of the home by the Department of Children and Families. Additionally, the court may grant extensions in some cases if the custodial parent requests a continuation before the child’s 19th birthday. Child support orders also terminate automatically on the day a child enters into military service, gets married or dies.

Child support obligations may be extended in situations when the court orders stipulate an alternative age for termination. This may occur if your child is still in high school, is disabled, is attending a full-time vocational school or college, or if you and your child’s other parent reached an alternative arrangement on your own. The age for such extensions, however, is capped at 23-years-old.

This post has provided an overview of New Jersey’s new emancipation statute. However, you should keep in mind that each situation is unique. Therefore, you should take this post only as general information and not as legal advice.

Life Insurance: Why? How Much? What Kind?

by: Ronald G. Lieberman, Esquire

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Life insurance is needed to secure payments of alimony, child support, and even payouts of equitable distribution following a divorce. The need for it is clear, along with the need for cash flow to pay the premiums. But, questions about the amount and types of coverage should be a common part of a client’s meeting with his or her divorce attorney.

It is also good practice for a client to tell his or her divorce attorney about the beneficiaries and not just because such information is required to be disclosed in New Jersey. It is a precarious situation for a person to own life insurance with the wrong or unintended beneficiary. In that case, the life insurance company will pay out the policy to the person listed as the beneficiary, even if that person is different from the person whom a judge or a divorce agreement said should be the beneficiary.

So, a client needs to have a discussion with his or her divorce attorney about obtaining, maintaining, and ensuring proper life insurance coverage for alimony, child support, and payouts of equitable distribution.

Cooper Levenson Expands Family Law with New Partner Ronald G. Lieberman

Ronald G. Lieberman, certified as a Matrimonial Law Attorney by the Supreme Court of New Jersey, has joined Cooper Levenson as a partner in the family/matrimonial department. Lieberman is based in the firm’s Cherry Hill office. Ron Lieberman IMG_5759-50cr.jpgHe will continue to practice in all areas of family/matrimonial law, including divorce, child custody, domestic violence, child support, alimony, equitable distribution, and appeals of family/matrimonial law matters.

Lieberman is one of only three percent of attorneys in the state to be certified by the Supreme Court of New Jersey. He also has been admitted as a Fellow of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, and is certified by the National Board of Trial Advocacy as a Family Law Trial Lawyer. Lieberman is rated AV Preeminent by Martindale Hubbell in Family Law and has been included on the New Jersey Super Lawyers list from 2014 through 2016.

“Ron brings a great passion for family law, as well as a wealth of experience,” said Kenneth J. Calemmo, chief operating officer of Cooper Levenson. “In order to earn the designations that he’s received, Ron must be favorably reviewed by other attorneys and judges, and pass rigorous examinations in matrimonial law covering a multitude of complex family law issues. We are thrilled to have him as part of the Cooper Levenson team.”

Lieberman is presently a member of the New Jersey Supreme Court Family Practice Committee and the Executive Editor of the New Jersey Family Lawyer . He serves regularly as a Matrimonial Early Settlement Panelist in Burlington and Camden Counties. Extensively published in family law, Lieberman also is a sought-after lecturer.

He is involved in the Jewish community, and serves on the board of directors of the Jewish Federation of Southern New Jersey, a Vice-President of the Katz Jewish Community Center, and as chair of the Cardozo Society of Jewish Federation of Southern New Jersey. He is a former board member of the Jewish Community Voice.

Lieberman has practiced exclusively family law for the past 16 years and prior to practicing law, he was a law clerk to the Honorable F. Lee Forrester, P.J.F.P. (ret.) He resides in Cherry Hill, N.J.

Cooper Levenson is a full service law firm since 1957, with 70 attorneys and New Jersey offices in Atlantic City and Cherry Hill. The firm has regional offices in Bear, Del., and Las Vegas, Nev. For more information, visit

How is child support enforced in New Jersey?

If you and your child’s other parent are raising your child apart, a New Jersey family law court may have granted you a child support award. Should your child’s other parent fail to make his or her payments, it may make it place an unnecessary burden on you, and affect your ability to care and provide for your child. However, the state has a number of options available for enforcing such orders.

When a parent neglects to make his or her child support payments, it could result in serious legal issues. For instance, falling behind may result in an enforcement hearing being scheduled by the state’s Probation Child Support Enforcement Unit. As formal court hearing, you and your child’s other parent may be called upon to provide sworn testimony before a hearing officer or a judge.

In some cases, the court may issue a bench warrant for parents who do not make their child support payments. This may result in a parent being arrested, and held until he or she catches up on what they owe or reach some other resolution. Additionally, the state’s Supreme Court may record judgments against parents who fail to make their payments. This type of claim could prevent them from selling or transferring certain property, and might appear on their credit reports.

License suspensions are another option that the state may use for enforcing child support orders. The New Jersey Courts point out that parents may have their driver’s, professional or recreational licenses suspended for failing to pay child support for at least six months. The state may also suspend parents’ licenses if a bench warrant is issued for them as a result of child support nonpayment. Further, parents may be denied a U.S. passport if they owe $2,500 or more in past due child support.

Parents who are behind on their child support may also have certain funds or assets intercepted. According to the New Jersey Courts, the state may seize the lottery winnings of at least $600 from parents who owe $1,000 or more in back child support. Under certain circumstances, a federal program permits the state to freeze or seize the assets in accounts belonging to parents who are in arrears on their child support payments.

This post has provided an overview of child support enforcement. It should, however, be taken only as general information and not as legal advice.

Understanding your options for enforcing child support

Child support payments are awarded to enable a custodial parent to afford the basics for a child: food, shelter and clothing. At Cooper Levenson Attorneys at Law, we know how frustrating it can be when a non-custodial parent is delinquent in making those payments. Fortunately, you do have legal options for ensuring that the other party pays.

The New Jersey Department of Human Services notes that any unpaid child support is considered a debt and can be collected or enforced through a variety of methods, including the following: 

  • Withholding income from the person’s paycheck
  • Suspending the person’s driving, professional or recreational licenses
  • Denying the person a passport
  • Intercepting lottery prize winnings
  • Seizing assets such as money in a bank account, stocks or bonds
  • Reporting debts of $1,000 or more to a credit agency, which harms the person’s credit score

In some cases, a judge or hearing officer can issue a warrant to the parent who owes money. This is especially true in situations in which the non-custodial parent fails to show up for a court date or does not abide by a court order. If the warrant is served, the parent could face time in prison.

New Jersey uses a computerized system to ensure that people who owe child support can be tracked. There is a New Hires Directory to which all employers must report new workers within 20 days of hiring. The listing includes the person’s Social Security number, name and address. The directory can be used to assist the state in withholding income from someone who has not made child support payments.

For more information on this topic, please visit our page on securing support payments.

Understanding how New Jersey determines child support payments

When you are trying to determine custody arrangements, you will likely also tackle the topic of child support. At Cooper Levenson Attorneys at Law, we have a firm understanding of how New Jersey determines these payment amounts and strive to help families reach a solution that is in the best interest of the children involved.

According to the New Jersey Child Support Guidelines, a judge will look at a number of factors to determine child support payments, such as the following: 

  • How many children there are
  • How old the children are
  • Each parent’s income
  • Custody and parenting time
  • Other financial responsibilities, such as a spouse who is already paying support for another child

Judges follow a state guideline that takes the weekly gross income of each parent and subtracts any pre-existing child or spousal support payments as well as any medical insurance that is paid for the child. Alimony payments are considered part of the weekly gross income.

Comparing the weekly gross income with the number of children in the home, a judge can determine how much money per week should go to the custodial parent. The number can be adjusted based on items such as work-related child care, educational expenses or any outstanding medical expenses.

In situations in which parents share physical custody of a child, the equation may slightly differ. Fortunately, judges in New Jersey have some flexibility when determining child support, which gives you the opportunity to make a case for the amount you deem is appropriate.

For more information on this topic, please visit our page regarding support payments in New Jersey.

Low-income fathers want to contribute to children, study suggests

Life can be difficult for single parents in today’s economy. In New Jersey as with most states, the parent who has the lesser amount of physical custody is generally the one who pays child support to the custodial parent. In most cases, the parent who pays child support is the father. Sometimes fathers have a difficult time making their monthly payments even though they still love their children and wish they could do more to help.

A recent study followed 367 low-income non-custodial fathers. The study showed that 23 percent of these dads made their court-ordered payments through their states’ child support agencies, while 28 percent gave money to the mothers and 46 percent contributed in other ways. These included providing clothing, money for school supplies, baby items and food.

The study also discovered that fathers who spent more time with their children were likely to contribute more in child support and in-kind contributions than those who saw their children less often. This may be due to fathers feeling more appreciated when they receive recognition for providing items their children need. Some sociologists believe that when mothers refuse to allow fathers to see their children if they are not current on child support, it can hurt the relationship between fathers and children. It can also strain friendly relations between both parents and lead to fathers contributing even less.

Both parents have an obligation to provide for their children. Some aspects of the child support system can take a parent’s circumstances into consideration to make it easier for the non-custodial parent to meet his or her financial obligations.

Source: TIME, “How Deadbeat are Deadbeat Dads, Really?” Belinda Luscombe, June 15, 2015